The Genetics of Coloration in Texas Longhorns: The Wild-type Color Variants. Hillis, Double Helix Ranch.
This article is the third in a five-part series on the genetics of coloration in Texas Longhorn cattle. This article was published in Texas Longhorn TrailsVolume 16, number 6 If you have comments or questions about this article, please e-mail me.
This article is intended for a general audience of Texas Longhorn breeders, rather than a technical audience. However, some scientific jargon is unavoidable, so if any of the terms are Black and white longhorn cattle, please see the Glossary.
Everyone has his or her own preferences about color of Texas Longhorns. Black seems to have been a favorite over the past few years, perhaps because it is less common in Texas Longhorns compared to the various shades of reds and browns. Other people love roans of any shade, and some people are enthusiastic about grullas. I enjoy a diversity of color, but I find the various modifications of wild-type coloration to be the most beautiful and interesting of Texas Longhorn colors.
For one thing, these are the colors that change the most through time; wild-type colored calves are usually born some shade of red, and then darken with age, and may appear almost black as adults Figure 1.
However, the degree of expression of black pigment eumelanin varies considerably, and is influenced by additional genes. These combinations of genes together with the wild-type allele at the Extension locus produce some of the most striking colors in Texas Longhorns, including brindle, Parker brown, walnut, and wine-colored.
Many introductory books on cattle greatly simplify the discussion of the genetics of cattle coloration, and may only present information on black and red coloration.
This is because the explanation of the black and red alleles is relatively simple, and because many breeds of cattle are fixed for one or the other of these two colors. There are, in fact, Black and white longhorn cattle two pigments that affect hair color of cattle, and these two pigments are black eumelanin and red phaeomelanin. Black cattle have both pigments, but they produce an excess of eumelanin, and this essentially masks the red phaeomelanin.
Red cattle produce little or no eumelanin, and so their hair looks red. White cattle produce neither pigment in their hair.
It is doubtful if the red, black, or white colors were found among the ancestral aurochs the ancestors of modern European cattleat least in high frequency.
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These color patterns were selected by humans early during the domestication of cattle, as a way to ensure breed purity and because humans liked the diversity. In contrast, the Black and white longhorn cattle are thought to have had an allele that allowed differential and variable production of both eumelanin and phaeomelanin, which produced a brown coloration with areas of black essential like the Parker brown coloration of Texas Longhorns; Figure 2.
The males were probably more darkly pigmented than the females, and adults more darkly pigmented than juveniles. This occurred because the relative expression of the two pigments changes in response to the expression of other genes that are activated with maturation and sexual differentiation. Texas Longhorns have retained all three of these basic colors black, red, and wild-type. The black allele is dominant over the other two, and the wild-type coloration is dominant over red, so individuals with wild-type coloration are either homozygous for the wild-type allele in other words, they have inherited the allele from both parentsor else they are heterozygous for the wild-type and red alleles they inherited the wild-type allele from only one parent.
Single longhorn, at sunrise, in...
Although all Texas Longhorns with wild-type coloration can express both pigments, the relative degree of black and red pigmentation is highly variable and is affected by several other genes. For instance, there are two alleles at the Brindle locus a dominant allele that is abbreviated Brand a recessive allele that is abbreviated br.
The Brindle gene has no obvious effects in true red or black Texas Longhorns, but if at least one copy of the Br allele is present in a wild-type colored individual, then that cow or bull will be brindled Figure 3. The degree of brindling may vary Black and white longhorn cattle response to other factors, including sex differences, as males often show more extensive and typically darker brindling patterns than do females. In addition, complex brindle patterns can develop in response to interactions with the various genes that produce areas of white, roan, or reduced pigmentation Figure 4.
For instance, if the bull is heterozygous for both wild-type coloration and brindling, then he is expected to pass on both of these traits together only about one-fourth of the time half of the time he will pass only one of the two traits to his calves, and the other fourth of the time he will pass neither trait to his offspring.
Even if he passes both wild-type coloration and brindling to his offspring, they may show a lesser degree Black and white longhorn cattle expression of the trait because of the influence of sex differences or the effects of other genes including the various genes that produce areas of white.
In addition, brindling typically develops with age, so the calves will not be brindled at birth, even if they are expected to develop this coloration as they age. On the other hand, if a breeder wishes to breed all brindled cattle, then a bull that is homozygous for both wild-type coloration and the dominant brindle allele will always pass on both traits to his offspring.
If this bull is mated to either red or wild-type cows, then all of the offspring are expected to show some degree of brindling. The degree of brindling will be variable because of the effects of other genes, but some black striping within areas of red or brown coloration should be present.
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The only offspring that may not show any brindling are calves produced by mating this bull with a black cow, because if the cow passes the black allele on to the offspring then the calves will be black rather than brindled recall that the black Extension allele is dominant over the wild-type Extension allele. There are two color variants produced in cattle with wild-type coloration that deserve special mention: They are usually born some shade of dark red or brown, and then become nearly black as they mature.
However, unlike true black animals, they have a light-colored muzzle ring, and usually a dark reddish-brown streak across the top of the head and backline see Figure 5.
Females with this coloration typically show a much greater degree of reddish pigment than do the males Figure Black and white longhorn cattle.
Many people consider the walnut coloration to be one of most beautiful and striking colors that is present in Texas Longhorns, and the deepening saturation of color that comes with increasing age of the animals adds another dimension of interest. Note the dark red hair on the poll, and the prominent muzzle ring. Females with the walnut coloration usually show less expression of black pigment than do males, and may appear deep red with only small areas of black.
However, they may appear almost completely black as well. As with other wild-type color variants, the muzzle ring on this cow Shadowette is clearly visible.
The wine roan coloration, another of the wild-type color variants photo of Delta Rockette courtesy of Malcolm Goodman. The wine or burgundy coloration is another variant of wild-type coloration that is considered highly desirable by many breeders Figure 7. This coloration is also produced by a combination of eumelanin and phaeomelanin, Black and white longhorn cattle the two pigments are present in lower concentration, to produce a burgundy coloration.
As the photographs that accompany this article illustrate, any of the colors of Texas Longhorns can appear with different patterns of white hairs that lack any pigment.
Additional Reading and References. The genetics of coloration in Texas Longhorns: Texas Longhorn Trails 16 3: Grulla, dun, and other reduced pigment patterns.
Texas Longhorn Trails 16 5: Spotted, lineback, color-sided, and White Park patterns. Texas Longhorn TrailsOctober Roan and brockling patterns. Texas Longhorn TrailsNovember The role of melanocyte-stimulating hormone MSH receptor in bovine coat color determination.
Choice of a wild-type standard in color genetics of domestic cattle. Journal of Heredity The genetic basis for piebald patterns in cattle.
Genetics of Colour Variation. In The Genetics of Cattle R. Pigmentation phenotypes of variant extension locus alleles result from point mutations that alter MSH receptor function. Three photos of the same wild-type colored heifer calf D-H Tantillaat three days old top phototwo months old middle photoand one year old bottom photo. Texas Longhorns at the Double Helix Ranch.
English Longhorn cattle are a long-horned brown and white breed of beef cattle originating Devon · Dexter; English Longhorn; Galloway · Hereford · Highland · Black and white longhorn cattle Red · Luing · Shorthorn · South Devon · Sussex · Welsh Black.
The N'Dama cattle of Africa have dark pigmented skin, white reflective hair and a all Texas Longhorns, that pattern is also found from the White Park cattle of. Thrill your walls now with a stunning Cattle Black and White Photography print from the Texas Longhorn Cow, in Lupin Meadow, Texas, USA by Lynn M. Stone.
The Genetics of Coloration in Texas Longhorns: The Wild-type Color Variants. Hillis, Double Helix Ranch. This article is the third in a five-part series on the genetics of coloration in Texas Longhorn cattle. This article was published in Texas Longhorn Trails , Volume 16, number 6 If you have comments or questions about this article, please e-mail me.
This article is intended for a general audience of Texas Longhorn breeders, rather than a technical audience. However, some scientific jargon is unavoidable, so if any of the terms are unfamiliar, please see the Glossary. Everyone has his or her own preferences about color of Texas Longhorns. Black seems to have been a favorite over the past few years, perhaps because it is less common in Texas Longhorns compared to the various shades of reds and browns.
The Official State of Texas Longhorn Herd at Fort Griffin
English Longhorn cattle also formerly known as Lancashire cattle  are a long-horned brown and white breed of beef cattle originating from Craven , in the north of England. The breed was initially used as a draught animal , which its body is well suited for; the milk was also collected for butter and cheese because of its high butterfat content.
An individual farmer would have owned one or two cows; these would have been accompanied by a bull owned by the Lord of the Manor.
Longhorns live surprisingly longer than other breeds of cattle and are also known for calving with ease. They have a white patch along the line of their spine and under their bellies. They are not to be confused with the Texas Longhorn breed, which is also often called "Longhorn cattle" or "Longhorns". Though long-horned oxen were already predominant in Craven in the 16th and 17th centuries, the English Longhorn breed was much improved for beef by Robert Bakewell of Dishley, Loughborough , when large amounts of meat were needed to feed people who had moved to towns and cities in the Industrial Revolution.
The breed is still to be found in Leicestershire at the Stanley's Springbarrow Farm, at Thoresby Estate in Nottinghamshire and a small herd has been re-introduced at Calke Abbey , in Derbyshire , where the Harpur-Crewe family had traditionally kept them. In popular culture, two English Longhorns can be seen in Mel Gibson's medieval epic Braveheart in which they tow a cart carrying the wounded father of a young William Wallace after an initial retaliatory skirmish with English forces.
English Longhorns have curved horns that tend to grow down around the face, framing it, whereas Texas Longhorns ' horns usually grow up and out, away from the face. Texas Longhorn cattle can be any colour a cow can be other than blue-roan, while English Longhorns are only brown and white. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Longhorn disambiguation.
Genetic analyses show that the Texas Longhorn originated from to browns, black, ruddy... White Rock Ranch, Registered Texas Longhorns Cattle for sale, Goats The Texas Longhorn is a breed of cattle known for its characteristic horns, which can extend... English Longhorn cattle are a long-horned brown and white breed of beef cattle originating Devon · Dexter; English Longhorn; Galloway...
The Encyclopaedic diversity of color is story of four breed's characteristics which head entrap the view of approaching breeders. In any case, realizing that brand-new posts time after time bring to light color briefs confusing, the Texas Longhorn Trails asked third-generation Texas Longhorn breeder Larry Griggs to state look after us with photographs and a shortened chronicle of the more shared colors. We longing you settle upon discover it helpful!
The occupation onward the treacherously was stereotypical, as in the mustang race. Foul-mouthed brown hairs any which way the ears were emblematic. The shadings and grouping of colors were so different that no two were alike" - J.
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Am i second choice? Article on the genetics of coloration in Texas Longhorn cattle. Part 3: It is doubtful if the red, black, or white colors were found among the ancestral aurochs (the. Single longhorn, at sunrise, in texas, black and white, cow, field, steer..